Filosofinen tiedekunta, 2010
The need for transportation of people, goods and services has increased together with economic growth. Continuous growth has brought pressure to global climate and environment. Common concern for the future generations´ living standards has influenced to organizations´ actions in public as well as in private sector. Organizations have started greener their actions by selecting low hanging fruits first. After the most visible improvements, next stage is to expand to impacts that haven’t been involved to the enhancement process before.
Research was carried out as a commission for subsidiary company Outokumpu Stainless BV that is located in coast of the Netherlands. Outokumpu corporate group has observed environmental aspects in its actions for quite a while and it’s willing to improve state of environmental management also in future. Therefore the aim of the research was to find out how to widen already existing environmental management to cover emissions controlling of customer transportations. The research subject was approached by familiarizing first to common environmental management tools and practices. Secondly, logistic point of view to subject was reviewed. The theoretical part of the research consists mainly from international articles and books. Also electronic sources and other web publications are being used. Environmental management is a well studied subject among researchers, and also the greener supply chain approach has gained more interest recently.
This study is quantitative in nature. In order to control emissions in future, present state need to be examined first. Emission calculation method was built based on databases that can be found from Internet. Transport modes that were included to study were road, rail and marine. In order to gather all required data to emissions calculations complementary information was searched from case company’s and vessel company’s internal databases. In addition enquiry was sent to truck companies. The primary target of the enquiry was to reveal actual Euro engine classification of the trucks that are used in customer transportations and secondary target was to reveal how environment management is conducted in companies. The enquiry was sent to logistic providers around Europe, response rate was 84 %.
Based on literature review road sector is often considered to be the worst polluter from different transport modes. According to results that were received from this study the issue is more complex. The highest carbon dioxide emissions are occurring from truck, but then vessel is producing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions more than other transports, whereas rail is the highest producer of particulate matter in gram per ton kilometer basis.
The central findings of the study were first of all that in spite of the fact that greener supply chain related practical toolkit is still it infancy, common cooperation may be seen as a good way to improve level of environmental management. Complex procedures become clearer when responsibilities and development work is divided between logistic providers and case company. Secondly, emission measuring is time consuming and perhaps a better way to greener activities could be certifying of suppliers processes. And thirdly, based on enquiry results for some of the respondents environmental aspects in operations was a routine. This attitude could be required from all logistic providers in coming years.
Environmental management, transports, emission controlling